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Mutation (1 of 4) Substitution

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A substitution is a mutation that exchanges one base for another (i.e., a change in a single "chemical letter" such as switching an A to a G).

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Mutation - DNA
When a cell divides, it makes a copy of its DNA — and sometimes the copy is not quite perfect. That small difference from the original DNA sequence is a mutation.

Mutation (2 of 4) Insertion
Insertions are mutations in which extra base pairs are inserted into a new place in the genes.

Mutation (3 of 4) Deletion
Deletions are mutations in which a section of genes is lost, or deleted.

Mutation (4 of 4) Frameshift
Since protein-coding genes is divided into codons three bases long, insertions and deletions can alter a gene so that its message is no longer correctly parsed. These changes are called frameshifts.