The family tree
The process of evolution produces a pattern of relationships between species. As lineages evolve and split and modifications are inherited, their evolutionary paths diverge. This produces a branching pattern of evolutionary relationships.
By studying inherited species' characteristics and other historical evidence, we can reconstruct evolutionary relationships and represent them on a "family tree," called a phylogeny. The phylogeny you see below represents the basic relationships that tie all life on Earth together.
The three domains
The tree is supported by many lines of evidence, but it is probably not flawless. Scientists constantly reevaluate hypotheses and compare them to new evidence. As scientists gather even more data, they may revise these particular hypotheses, rearranging some of the branches on the tree. For example, evidence discovered in the last 50 years suggests that birds are dinosaurs, which required adjustment to several "vertebrate twigs."
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Photo credits for life, animals, and vertebrates trees
Understanding Evolution © 2018 by The University of California Museum of Paleontology, Berkeley, and the Regents of the University of California