Understanding Evolution: your one-stop source for information on evolution
Resource library Teaching materials Evolution 101 Support this project

Teaching materials : Image library:

To save: right-click (Windows) or control-click (Mac) on the image and select "Save image."

Mutation (1 of 4) Substitution

Image caption:
A substitution is a mutation that exchanges one base for another (i.e., a change in a single "chemical letter" such as switching an A to a G).

See the Understanding Evolution page where this image appears.

<< Back to search results

Image credit:
If you use this image in your own non-commercial project please credit it to the University of California Museum of Paleontology's Understanding Evolution (http://evolution.berkeley.edu).

This image is part of a series:

Mutation - DNA
When a cell divides, it makes a copy of its DNA and sometimes the copy is not quite perfect. That small difference from the original DNA sequence is a mutation.

Mutation (2 of 4) Insertion
Insertions are mutations in which extra base pairs are inserted into a new place in the genes.

Mutation (3 of 4) Deletion
Deletions are mutations in which a section of genes is lost, or deleted.

Mutation (4 of 4) Frameshift
Since protein-coding genes is divided into codons three bases long, insertions and deletions can alter a gene so that its message is no longer correctly parsed. These changes are called frameshifts.