Imagine that green beetles are easier for birds to spot (and hence, eat). Brown beetles are a little more likely to survive to produce offspring. They pass their genes for brown coloration on to their offspring. So in the next generation, brown beetles are more common than in the previous generation.
Image use policy: For non-commercial, educational purposes, this image may be used with a Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 license. Please credit as follows: © University of California Museum of Paleontology, Understanding Evolution, www.understandingevolution.org
This image is part of a series: