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THE TREE ROOM

Primer on trees

Tree misinterpretations

Field guide to evolutionary trees

How to build a tree

Trees matter

For teachers

For museums and zoos

Credits

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The Tree Room : How to build a tree :

Evidence for building trees

Any trait that can be passed from one generation to the next through inheritance can help us learn about evolutionary relationships. These traits include:

  • DNA and RNA sequences (as well as other molecular traits like the amino acid sequences of proteins). Because DNA technology is now widely available, relatively inexpensive, and generates a lot of useful evidence, many evolutionary trees being built today are based on DNA sequences. In recent years, many branching connections on the Tree of Life (including where turtles fit on the Tree, how whales are related to other mammals, and the basic relationships among plants, fungi, and animals) have been revised based on DNA evidence.

    DNA base pairs
    The nucleotide sequence of DNA can help us reconstruct evolutionary trees.

  • Morphology (i.e., structure and form). Morphology includes all sorts of physical traits that may be encoded in an organism's genetic material — the size and shape of different body parts, the presence or absence of different physical characteristics, coloration, pattern, and much more. Before 1980, most evolutionary trees were based on morphology alone; today, trees based on DNA alone or a combination of DNA and morphology are much more common. Nevertheless, morphology still has an important role in phylogenetics, in no small part because DNA is usually unavailable for extinct species and because fossils preserve many aspects of morphology. Morphology is often the sole line of evidence that can help us learn how ancient life is related to modern species.

Heliconius butterflies
Studying physical differences, such as those among butterflies, can help us reconstruct their evolutionary tree.

  • Physiology and biochemical pathways. Characteristics such as variations in photosynthetic pathway or in digestive system function are heritable and so intimately intertwined with the basic biological systems of life that they can reveal deep evolutionary relationships.

Hydrothermal vent
Chemical pathways, such as the ability to use methane as a food source, as many bacteria that live near hydrothermal vents do, can help us understand the evolutionary relationships among those bacteria.

  • Behavioral and ecological traits. Many behaviors, like complexity of a mating dance, diet breadth, and habitat preference, have an underlying genetic basis and so are heritable. While trees are rarely based on such traits alone, behavioral and ecological traits may be used along with other types of characteristics to build evolutionary trees.

Male red-capped manakin performing its backwards dance
Studying behavioral traits, like the steps in a manakin's mating dance, can help reveal evolutionary relationships. Photo by Tim Laman, www.timlaman.com.

 
For an example of how behavioral traits can reveal evolutionary relationships, see our research profile on ornithologist Kim Bostwick.
 

DNA graphic adapted from Sponk (CC BY-SA 3.0); Heliconius butterfly image adapted from Axel Meyer (CC BY-SA 3.0); Hydrothermal vent photo © 2012 Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI)

How to build a tree
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Evo examples
Feeling lost? Review tree basics with the primer.